Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Conflict theory and labeling theory are two similar theories in the world of crime. It has been debated whether or not there is a clear line separating the two theories. By evaluating the two theories, the differences between them can become more obvious and it becomes easier to separate the two. In addition to conflict theory and labeling theory, there is another type of theories that are used to explain crime. These theories focus more on a criminal s lifetime and how their criminal records have evolved over time. Two of the leading theories in this realm of criminology are MoffitÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of life course persistent offenders and Sampson and LaubÃ¢â¬â¢s age-graded theory of informal social control. These theories both explain why people commit or don t commit crime. There are similarities between the theories and also differences. By analyzing all four of these theories, a better understanding can be gained related to crime. The traditional view of crime has sometimes been that if a government is tougher on crime, the crime rates will go down. There are theories that suggest the state interventions can reduce the crime rates and are key to solving areas of high crime. However, labeling theory challenges all of this. This theory suggests that state intervention can actually increase crime rates. By assigning labels to Ã¢â¬Å"criminalsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"felonsÃ¢â¬ , the state is deepening the problems that are getting people to turn to crime in the first place. Labeling theory states that the stateShow MoreRelatedThe Conflict Theory And Labeling Theory Essay1961 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagescompare and contrast the Conflict theory and the Labeling theory. The conflict theory and Labeling theory have little similarities even though they both deal with deviance and see crime as a social construct these two theories have more differences than similarities. The Labeling theory deals with conflict in more peaceful ways such as trying to end the conflict and eliminate it from the socialist system, and trying to solve the powerful oppressing the powerless. This theory uses the irony of socialRead MoreConflict and Labeling Theory Essay1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConflict and Labeling Theory Labeling theory is concerned less with that causes the onset of an initial delinquent act and more with the effect that official handling by police, courts, and correctional agencies has on the future of youths who fall into the court system. Labeling theory states that youths violate the law for a number of reasons; these reasons are poor family relationships, neighborhood conflict, peer pressure, psychological and biological abnormality and delinquent learning experiencesRead MoreLabeling And Conflict Theory On Social Issues843 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The labeling theory is basically about folks who committed deviant behavior; as a result, the individual is to be labeled based on the merit of the offense. As I will elaborate in more details below, scholars are skeptical about the labeling theory and their concern is that it may leads to individuals in engaging in deviant behavior. In contrast, conflict theory mostly focuses on social issues, in particular the lack of economic opportunity for everyone throughout the nation. Also, as mentionedRead MoreA Comparison of Conflict and Labeling Theory in the Context of Youth Gangs1531 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesal. 2013; Yoder et al. 2003). This paper will examine the factors associated with youth gang membership using Karl Marxs conflict theory and labeling theory in comparison. Although conflict theory helps explain why a troublesome economy and coming from a low-socioeconomic status contributes to gang involvement, the theory has its limitations. On the other hand, labeling theory is unable to fully explain youth gang involvement based on the aforementioned factors. That being said, it can give a betterRead MoreEssay on The Boondock SaintsÃ¢â¬â¢ Positive Deviance1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSocial theory of deviance can easily explain the brothersÃ¢â¬â¢ actions. The movie can be used to study deviance as the brothers kill people who are mafia members, breaking the norms of society. Even though the acts they are committing are clearly illegal and deviant, the people of South Boston do not react in a negative way. Since the Social theory is very broad, it will be easier to look at the brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s acts under three sub theories: Labeling, Conflict and Strain theories. The Social theory of devianceRead MoreLabeling Theory And Self Identity1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLabeling theory holds that individuals come to identify and act as per their labels. The major tenet of this theory is that the behavior and self-identity of individuals is affected by the way they are described by other people (Vold, Bernard, Snipes, Gerould, 2016). According to this theory, the act of deviance is not implicit in a particular act, but is hedged on the inclination of the majority to ascribe labels to minorities in society who deviate from standard behavior. Labeling leads to dramatizationRead MoreTheories, Conflict Theories And Developmental Theories957 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnot commit crime in comparison to other groups of individuals. Different theories this module covers to help explain different criminal patterns are labeling theories, conflict theories and developmental theories. Labeling theories also known as social reaction theory tries to explain how labeling a person can actually cause them to participate in more criminal behavior (Tibbetts, 2012, p. 173). They believe that by labeling someone a criminal, crime starts to become self-filling, and they may startRead MoreWhy People Commit The Crime Essay1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCriminological theory is the explanation of criminal behavior, as well as the behavior of juveniles, attorneys, prosecutors, judges, correctional personnel, victims, and other actors in the criminal justice process. Criminological theory is important because most of what is done in criminal justice is based on criminological theory, whether we or the people who propose and implement policies based on the theory know it or not. In criminology, examining why people commit the crime is very importantRead MoreTaking a Look at the Labeling Theory909 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The labeling theory is one of the critical perspective sociologi cal theories of crime. Labeling theory was the first of the critical perspectives and like the other critical perspectives, it considers defining crime, as well as applying a label to those who commit what is defined as a crime to be problematic. Among the issues addressed by labeling theory are defining deviance based on primary deviance through implementing a label on the offender, discrimination by formal institutions, as well asRead MoreAbstract . The Labeling Theory Proposes That Once A Juvenile1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAbstract The labeling theory proposes that once a juvenile has been labeled a deviant or delinquent they become stigmatized as a criminal, and begin to believe the label or accept it in a self-fulfilling prophecy. Because of these labels, many juveniles continue with their deviant acts because they feel obligated to act out in a negative manner. Sociologists Tannenbaum, Becker, Lement are more interested in the reaction to the crime, not the cause of the crime, and have theorized that once an
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In the famous political philosopher Thomas HobbesÃ¢â¬â¢s work Leviathan, He describes manÃ¢â¬â¢s natural desire to seek others and establish peace and a working Ã¢â¬Å"govermentÃ¢â¬ to protect the individual. He states that Ã¢â¬Å"The first and fundamental law of Nature, which is, to seek peace and follow itÃ¢â¬ Is the driving force behind the creation of civilized groups. This, with other substantial benefits creates a safe haven for man, where he need not worry about dangers he would be exposed to as a lone wolf. Civilization creates a place where all contribute to maintain unity and overcome their obstacles. The age old saying of Ã¢â¬Å" there is strength in numbersÃ¢â¬ rings true in this circumstance. Civilization was essentially born from mans core and most valuedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A chief!Ã¢â¬ . This also goes to show how even young boys, unaware of complex government and societal structures, still have a primitive understanding of the need of a Civilized and structured group. We also see the boys recognizing the importance of Laws and the consequences of disobeying said laws. Laws create a set of standards that all should follow to strengthen the group and avoid conflict from within the civilization. We even see the boys comparing a lawless group to savages, stating Weve got to have rules and obey them. After all, were not savages.Ã¢â¬ This shows that even without the presence of parenting figures, the boys still find it nessasacry to enforce rules upon themselves, these rules can be looked at as rules of conduct, ensuring that the boys work together for the same purpose. IÃ¢â¬â¢d also like to point attention towards the moment when all the boys arrived from the conch shell call, Ã¢â¬Å"Piggy moved among the crowd, asking names and frowning to remember them. The children gave him the same simple obedience that they had given to the man with the megaphones. Ã¢â¬Å" This displays that the boys are automatically assuming a role of a follower, they fin d it nessacary to conform with the group and obey the Ã¢â¬Å"parenting figuresÃ¢â¬ who seem as if they can bring order to all the chaos. Now, you may be asking yourself, Why does the individual surrender a portion of his free will to suit the group ofShow MoreRelatedCivilization Vs Civilization770 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAccording to the dictionary, underneath the word civilization, it states Ã¢â¬Å"an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and the government has been reached.Ã¢â¬ (Dictionary)However, Huntington describes to some degree, something polar opposite, civilization as a meaningful entity. That those nations, and its people, will not only be defined by what modern technology it possesses, but also by their cultural identities and the regions in which they reside withinRead MoreLord of the Flies - Civilization vs Savagery2896 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesbetween the ages of six and thirteen. It revolves around how the children cope without the structure of authority, civilization and the watchful eye of grown ups. Though the novel is fictional, its exploration of the idea of human evil is at least partly based on GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s experience with the real life violence and destruction of World War II. Free from the rules and structures of civilization and society, the boys on the island in Lord of the Flies descend into savagery. As the boys divide into groupsRead MoreLord of the Flies Allegory: Civilization vs. Savagery Essay883 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLord of the Flies Allegory: Civilization vs. Savagery Every human has a primal instinct lying within them. It is not a question of how close to the actual surface it dwells, but rather how well an individual controls and copes with it. In a state of prolonged anguish and panic, what is one truly capable of? Can one remain sophisticated or will the temptation of their dark subconscious take over, bringing out the barbarianism which exists in us all? William GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s Lord of the Flies exploresRead MoreEssay about Lord of the Flies: Civilization vs Savagery775 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesorder, and our savage will has been to act out for our own selfish needs. We each choose to live by one or the other depending on how we feel is the correct way to live. In this allegorical novel, William Golding represents the transformation from civilization to savagery in the conflict between two of the main characters: Ralph who represents law and order and Jack who represents savagery and violence. Lord of the Flies has remained a very controversia l novel to this day with its startling, brutal,Read MoreCivilization Vs Civilization888 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand playful but as the book progresses, the civilization they made came crashing down, the boys become psychologically imbalanced and their beliefs drastically changed as well as their behavior. Lord of the Flies portrays the civilization that the boys attempted to make but also the total breakdown of society. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to have rules and obey themÃ¢â¬ ¦we are not savagesÃ¢â¬ (Golding, 42). In this quote, it shows that the boys tried to create a civilization by setting some ground rules. For example, someRead MoreCivilization Vs Civilization1775 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesevil, which he put into Lord of the Flies (Golding.) Throughout the novel, Golding symbolized civilization in various aspects through a character or a certain object. As an example, Sam and Eric are always joined at the hip and do everything together, so they represent unity and alliance. In the beginning, the boys found a conch, which represented rules, democracy, and order, which every civilization needs. In the book William Golding created an amazing suspenceful plot in order to hook us intoRead MoreLord Of Flies By William Golding1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In the Ã¢â¬ËLord of fliesÃ¢â¬â¢ by William Golding, the theme of civilization vs. Savagery is explored. When a bunch of children are stranded on an island, the conflict between savagery and the rules of civilization begins to split the boys into two groups. Throughout the novel, the conflict is exaggerated by the two main characters, Ralph and Jack. While Ralph uses his abilities to control the kids and be civilized on the island. Jack lets his impulses get to him and creat es a group of which act like savagesRead MoreIs Civilization the Answer to the Chaos?1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAs Mark Twain once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Civilization is the limitless multiplication of unnecessary necessities.Ã¢â¬ The society believes that civilization is the solution to disorder and chaos, but sometimes it creates more problems than solutions. To the imperial Europeans, turning the natives into civilized human beings was the main goal, and that is why they felt as if it was their job to take over the nativesÃ¢â¬â¢ lands. In general, civilization is seen as a solution to a utopian realm. William Shakespeare in TheRead MoreCivilization Versus Savagery in Goldings Lord of the Flies Essay807 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessinful nature of man. Golding uses symbols, characters and objects to represent his main ideas and themes. The conch was used to call meetings but is also symbolic of the government structure and power. One of the main themes in the novel Ã¢â¬Å"Civilization vs. SavageryÃ¢â¬ is fought between two egos, Jack the Id who represents savagery and the desire for power and Ralph the Ego and protagonist, who represents order and leadership. William Golding created a society that was controlled by the dominant egoRead MoreCompare and Contrast of the Arguments in Huntingtons The Clash of Civilizations and Saids The Clash of Ignorance1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSamuel Huntington has made famous his thesis the clash of civilizations, which was developed in his article in Foreign Affairs in 1993 and in the book that followed, in which the author expanded his thesis and reaffirmed the validity of his theory after the success and controversy that followed the publication of his article. In fact, the Ã¢â¬Å"civilizationalÃ¢â¬ approach of conflicts today is now intrinsically linked to a comprehensiv e theory of international relations, which Samuel Huntington has developed
Hamlet Act ll An important character in the play Hamlet is Polonius. Polonius is often thought to be foolish, and thoughtless. However, Polonius is anything but foolish, and thoughtless. Polonius is a man who is very intellectual, and he provides guidance to those who need it. For example, his advice to Reynaldo on how toÃ monitor Laertess wild behavior is magnificent and brilliant. His advice to OpheliaÃ about Hamlet, love, and affection is very accurate. Polonius is considered a fool to some people, because Hamlet is making it seem that way, he wants to put Polonius down, and make Polonius seem like a fool. Hamlet is rude to Polonius, and constantly making fun of him. At one point Hamlet calls Polonius a Ã¢â¬Å"fishmongerÃ¢â¬ . Hamlet then makes his insult worse by wishing that Polonius were as honest as a fishmonger, which is to say that Polonius is lower than the lowest. We will write a custom essay sample on Hamlet Act Two or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Although, Polonius is nothing of the sort, another example of Polonius providing guidance to those who need it is when Laertes is waiting for his ship to depart, Polonius has a couple of minutes to tellÃ him how to live well. His brief advice is insightful and parental. He tells Laertes to think beforeÃ he acts, listen more than talk,Ã keep good friends close but dont worryÃ about drinking buddies. Dont get in fights, watch your money, and take care of your appearance, things like that. Polonius is the kind to seek to discover the truth on his own. He studies Hamlet to link his madness to love and betrayal. He then seeks to trial his theories by testing Hamlets sanity through a slew of inquiring questions. A foolish man does not do this. Perhaps, Polonius was just putting on an act, to make people think that he was foolish and stupid. Regardless of his motives, Polonius cannot be described as a simple character. Polonius has gotten a bad reputation, but further depth into his character reveals that Polonius is indeed a complex character with a great deal of wisdom.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
In recent years, social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram, and MySpace have become highly popular. Many proclaim about their benefits due to their effortless way to expand communication, marketing, and networking. However, many fail to discuss their risks and disadvantages particularly in the youthful population specifically among college students. The overuse of these social media sites among college students has many negative effects not only academically, but socially too. Moreover, social media is harmful for college students because it encourages the misuse of time management, students usually display a poor academic performance, and it exposes the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ privacy. One of the reasons social media is harmful for college students is because it encourages the misuse of time management. Many students attempt to multitask between assignments and social media sites to Ã¢â¬Ëmake betterÃ¢â¬â¢ use of their time. However, according to Ellen Goodman Ã¢â¬Å"high multitaskers are not better at anything, even multitasking. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Media Is Harmful For College Students or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They are worse. Ã¢â¬ In this high-tech oriented generation, the use of computers is essential for a college studentÃ¢â¬â¢s success. However, students often immerse themselves countless hours on irrelevant social media sites checking Ã¢â¬Å"notificationsÃ¢â¬ , when they should focus most of their time in college related activities and assignments. Based on Clifford NassÃ¢â¬â¢s research in Standford, Ã¢â¬Å"high multitaskers focused less, remembered less, and are more easily distracted. Ã¢â¬ In addition, because they spend so much time in these social media sites, they waste time that could not only be used for completing college assignments, but time from their sleep. Sleepless students often display a poor academic performance. Furthermore, because students are focusing more time in these social media sites they keep postponing completion of their academic tasks and thereby their personal and organizational productivity is affected and as a consequence their grades drop. A large number of college students use this sites as a way to connect to other students and people around the world. Often, these sites require its users to create profiles that include pictures, personal information, videos and more. Students believe that their privacy is protected from other users simply by blocking certain information from being displayed and setting their privacy options high. In reality, it is not. Many studentsÃ fail to understand that once their information has been placed online it becomes available for anyone, in particularly for schools, government and other institutions. Most colleges before admitting a student will run a full background check, including a social media background. This can potentially affect the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance to a college or a job. In conclusion, social media is harmful for students in many ways because it distracts the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s time management skills thus affecting their academic productivity, it negatively affects their grades and it exposes their private life to anyone. As social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram, and MySpace continue to grow in popularity among college students, prioritizing educational requirements over the use of social media sites will get harder. As stated by Clifford Nass Ã¢â¬Å"high multitaskers couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t shift well from one task to another and they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t organize well. They couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t figure out what was important and what wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Ã¢â¬ Students must find a balance between what is truly important academically and what is not, otherwise their performance in college will continue to be negatively affected.
Monday, March 16, 2020
Watergate Scandal erupts in D.C. (Creative Writing/ Roleplaying) Yesterday, June 17, 1972, the Democratic Party's National Committee offices, located at the Watergate Hotel in Washington D.C., were broken into yesterday by several men. Though the number of people involved is not yet known, five burglars have been identified. One even said he used to work for the CIA. They were arrested at 2:30 a.m. trying to bug the offices of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate hotel and office complex. The men have been identified as Bernard L. Barker - a realtor from Miami, Florida, Virgilio R. Gonzales - a locksmith from Miami, Florida, James W. McCord - a security coordinator for the Republican National Committee and the Committee for the Re-election of President Nixon, Eugenio R. Martinez - worked for Barker's Miami real estate firm and Frank A. Sturgis - another associate of Barker from Miami. Thanks to the quick thinking and reactions of the security guard on duty, Frank Willis, the trespassers were caught.Barker at the grounds at the Vermon t state fair, R...The trespassers were apparently trying to bug the phones in the building in order to listen in on the Democratic Party's conversations and discover their most important interests. President Nixon has not yet been linked with the break in but one of the other accused burglars, John Mitchell, is a GOP security aide. He is also former attorney general and head of the Nixon reelection campaign. He has denied any link to the operation. We can only hope that in the coming days, more information will be released and found and those guilty will be put to justice.
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Carnival Major Aspect Of Trinidadian Culture Social Policy Essay What is culture? According to La Belle and Ward (1996), a current definition of culture encompasses the shared attributes which delineate one group as separate from another ( p. 28). A slightly more specific definition for this very broad term comes from Frantz Fanon who says that a Ã¢â¬Å"culture is first and foremost the expression of a nation, its preferences, its taboos, and its modelsÃ¢â¬ (2004, p.177). From this standpoint we will examine Trinidadian culture or more specifically the significance of Carnival, an integral part of Trinidadian culture, as an outpouring of expression which originated with the French Roman Catholic aristocracy and later was influenced by slaves and former slaves. We will also examine the role it plays in inspiring national pride and uniting the Trinidadian diaspora. According to Mr. Walcott we have lost much of our historical legacy and it is from this loss and the consequent necessity for something to fill that void that the innovation of our cu lture (i.e. Caribbean culture) materialized (Walcott, 1974, p. 6). I disagree with Mr. Walcott on this point. I believe that a great deal of history was lost yes, whether it is because it was irrelevant as he says or not is in itself immaterial for the purpose of this discussion. It is my opinion that culture was not simply an upwelling of inventiveness due to large gaps in historical memory, but also an amalgamation of what historical heritage was left behind regardless of the fact that it was in tatters. If we take Carnival as an isolated part of culture, this point can be proven as we examine the origins of Carnival and see for ourselves that it began in Trinidad with a French Roman Catholic tradition of the aristocracy (Zavitz & Allahar, 2002) in the pre-emancipation era as a last prelenten celebration, which symbolized the abandonment of propriety. It was transformed with the advent of emancipation from a celebration in the form of masked balls, song, drama and dance which indi rectly, covertly and subversively confronted issues of social restrictions of class and race, since most wore masks, into a fusion in the post-emancipation period of West African religious practices and beliefs and the pre-existing French celebration (Nurse, 1999). The initial celebration of Carnival by the recently freed slaves was in the form of re-enacting a scene that they had become all too familiar with and which they had named Ã¢â¬ËCannes BrulÃ ©esÃ¢â¬â¢ or burning cane (Carnival). This is one instance of creation such as that which Mr. Walcott speaks of, however we can clearly see that the entirety of the Carnival practice, once taken as a whole, contains old and new elements, old from both French and African historical celebrations separately and new from the synthesis of new ideas based on experiences and the mixing of two cultures together, one forcibly oppressed for many years, and the other, living in extravagance comparatively. Let us now take a look at what Carni val is, what it symbolizes presently for the citizens of Trinidad and Tobago. Carnival as seen by the spectator and masquerader alike is not viewed as anything static. Ã¢â¬Å"It is a dynamic and fluid processÃ¢â¬ (Green, 2007, p. 206). It is a vibrant, exuberant, triumphant, colourful display on the one hand of freedom from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s inhibitions as passed down from the originators of this festival, in which fast-paced, up-tempo music urges revelers to jump and gyrate in time with the syncopations of the melodic Ã¢â¬ËsocaÃ¢â¬â¢ music (Green, 2007, pp. 207-208). Feathers, beads, staffs, headbands, bright dramatic make-up, sequins, beads and all manner of shiny things bob and weave with the rhythm of the uninhibited who proudly bare their costumes and newly fit bodies for cameras and tourists alike. Big music trucks patrol the streets with thousands cavorting to the tune reverberating from the massive speakers that take up the entire truck-cab and face in all directions. This maddeningly spectacular display of peacock-like feathers, glitter and lithe bodies strutting to the beat, begins on Carnival Monday morning with Ã¢â¬ËJÃ¢â¬â¢OuvertÃ¢â¬â¢ which means opening of the day and continues right through into Ã¢â¬ËLasÃ¢â¬â¢LapÃ¢â¬â¢ on Tuesday night until the stroke of midnight (Scher, 2002, p. 461). This is the part of Carnival that is marketed, packaged and sold to the masses every year. The package includes the enticement of watching steel-bands vie for the title of champion in the QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s Park Savannah, during Panorama, the most renowned steelpan competition during the Carnival season. It is not to say that this is all that Carnival consists of, however when considering the diasporic culture of expatriate Trinis, as they are called, and their descendants, these are the images that bring to life that longing for the homeland and have inspired stirrings in the soul to return to Trinidad, just to participate in this festival of colour an d unadulterated elation. The term diasporic mentioned refers to the dispersion of a community away from its homeland to more than one peripheral region, which remembers or has some cultural connection to the homeland and is not fully acknowledged as a member of the current country (Clifford, 1994, p. 304).
Thursday, February 13, 2020
The May 6, 2010 Flash Crash - Essay Example On the contrary, the contemporary market is characterized with higher demand as compared to the supply. Financial innovations enable changes in the financial market by introducing new ways of trading assets. One of the newest financial innovations entails trading from computer to computer through use of complex mathematical algorithms that are hard for humans to comprehend. The recent financial crisis resulted in increased unemployment, which is an indicator of the increased inefficiency of the stock market. This paper agrees with Stiglitz opinion that that Flash Crash will lead to less investment in information, which is harmful to the markets price discovery function hence the financial market. The paper will oppose the opinion that Flash Crash could be a positive feedback loop of the trading environment. Computer trading has become a common phenomenon, which has increased the speed of trading making it impossible for humans to intervene in times of occurrences such as flash crash. Additionally, the explosive trading speed results in undermined efficiency since the market becomes incapable of allocating resources efficiently. Flash Crash entail trading from computer to computer through use of pre-programmed algorithms. ... During the Flash Crash, a contract could be traded for more than 27,000 in a period of about 14 seconds (U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission & U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission, 2010; Stiglitz, 2012). According to the SEC report, computer generated algorithms, which are used for high frequency trading comprise more than 70% of trading in U.S. equities. On the SEC joint report on the flash crash of 6 May 2010, the American shares fell by 10% within a few minutes, which resulted in many questions regarding the credibility of nanosecond trading, which characterizes computer to computer trading. The computer based trading does not make use of price discovery but uses algorithms that makes it possible for dealers to extract information regarding expected price of securities through observing patterns of prices and trades. The dealers are thus incapable of making sound decisions. High frequency trading undermines the stability of the market. During the flash clash, high frequency trading firms started by absorbing sell pressure but eventually started forceful selling, which resulted in increased orders in the market and creation of feedback loop. Eventually, the high frequency trading firms began to buy and resell to each other e-mini contracts resulting in decreased net buying irrespective of the increased volume of e-mini contracts. Buyers using traditional trading methodologies refused to buy the extra E-minis resulting in the fall in trading funds. This was because dealers could not comprehend the transactions and feared taking risks. Therefore, computer based trading is inapplicable since there are no clear models on how it operates (Stiglitz, 2012; Mackenzie, 2006). High frequency trading resulted in liquidity crisis when automated trading systems